Gastrointestinal tract

The tube that extends from the mouth to the anus in which the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food.


The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach.

The esophagus lies between the trachea (windpipe) and the spine (backbone).


Doctor, specifically - a physian, who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.

This includes the parts - stomach, intestines, pancreas, esophagus, liver, gallbladder and biliary system.


A sexual disorder involving an erotic attraction to animals or an abnormal desire to have sexual contact with animals.

It's a form of paraphilia or deviant sexual behaviour.


An infectious disease in animals that can be transmitted to people.

Examples of zoonoses include rabies, psittacosis, anthrax etc.


The part of the temporal bone of the skull that forms the prominence of the cheek.

Greek: zygon = yoke or crossbarby which two draft animals (e.g.: oxen) could be hitched to a plow or wagon.


An area of tissue death due to a local lack of oxygen.

Latin: infarcire = to plug up or cram, refers to clogging of artery.


Ineffective or negligent medical treatment.

iatro (relationship to a physician) + meleos (Greek, in vain) = iatromelia (ineffective treatment)


An intense dislike of doctors.

iatro (relationship to a physician) + miseo (Greek, I hate) = iatromisia (I hate doctors).


The spontaneous flow of milk from the nipple at any time other than during nursing.

Greek: galaktos (milk) + rhein (to flow) = galactorrhea (to flow milk)

Also known as witch's milk.


A genetic metabolic disease in which there is a defect in the body's ability to use the sugar.


Study of cancer.

In clinical oncology, there are three primary disciplines:

  • Medical oncology: the treatment of cancer with medicine

  • Radiation oncology: the treatment of cancer with therapeutic radiation

  • Surgical oncology: the surgical aspects of cancer

Greek: onglos (bulk, tumor) + logos (study) = oncology (study of tumor).


Pertaining to dreams.

Greek: oneiros = dream


  • Deposition of dark pigment in connective tissues.

  • A genetic metabolic disorder due to deficiency of the enzyme homogentisic acid dioxygenase.


Stones that form when substances in the bile harden.

Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. There can be just one large stone, hundreds of tiny stones, or any combination.

There are two types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones.



Condition in which urination is less than normal.

Normally, the threshold is 1ml per kg per hr in infants, 0.5ml per kg per hr in children and 400ml per day in adults.


A rounded oval prominence on the surface of the medulla oblongata in the brain.

Also known as olive. Pl. olivae.

There are two olives, corresponding to the two olivary bodies, one on each side of the medulla oblongata.


A set of genes transcribed under the control of an operator gene.

More specifically, an operon is a segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes, an operator gene, and a regulatory gene. As such, an operon is a functional unit of transcription and genetic regulation.


The area of the throat that is at the back of the mouth.

The oropharynx is in contrast to the nasopharynx - the part of the throat that lies behind the nose.


The art and science of managing pregnancy, labor and the puerperium.


A chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide.

Toxaphene contains over 670 chemicals.

It is usually found as a solid or gas and in its original form it is a yellow to amber waxy solid that smells like turpentine. It does not burn and evaporates when in solid form or when mixed with liquids.


First part of the large bowel in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.

It receives fecal material from the small bowel (ileum) which opens into it. The appendix is attached to the caecum.

Latin: caecus = blind.

Refers to the fact that the bottom of the caecum is a blind pouch leading to nowhere.


A local growth of the epidermis caused by a virus.

The virus of warts (a papillomavirus) is transmitted by contact. The contact can be with a wart on someone else or one on oneself (autoinoculation).

The medical name for a wart is verruca, the Latin for wart.

A common wart is a verruca vulgaris.

A wart in medicine is also sometimes called verruga, Spanish for wart.


The period of isolation decreed to control the spread of infectious disease.

Before the era of antibiotics, quarantine was one of the few available means for halting the spread of infectious diseases. It is still employed as may be needed.

Latin: quadraginta = forty.

This was probably because it was known that the incubation period of most infectious diseases was less than 40 days.

Venice was the first city to impose a quarantine in 1348 AD, to halt the epidemic of the bubonic plague.

Infantile spasms

A seizure disorder of infancy and early childhood with the onset predominantly in the first year of life of myoclonic seizures, hypsarrhythmia (abnormal, chaotic electroencephalogram), and mental retardation.

The spasms are sudden, brief contractions of one or more muscle groups, and may be followed by a longer (less than 10 seconds) tonic phase.

Neurological abnormalities other than seizures and retardation such as cerebral atrophy, congenital abnormalities and hydrocephalus are commonly reported among children with infantile spasms.

The disease is also kown as West syndrome.